There is currently no crude oil moved by tank ships (or “tankers”) on the Great Lakes. However, the Great Lakes do have tremendous potential for the efficient movement of crude oil by ship from the coast to inland refineries. This is due to the fact that over 4.5 million metric tons of other bulk liquid cargo was safely shipped in 2018. Additionally, relatively small quantities of oil are transported to refineries by barge on rivers and canals within the basin. The movement of oil by ship is generally considered safer than trains or trucks in terms of number of incidents; however, history has shown that spills from tankers can have unique challenges for cleanup and far-reaching environmental consequences.
Where is there potential for oil transport by ship in the Great Lakes region?
Currently no crude oil is actively transported by tankers on the Great Lakes. The map below shows major Great Lakes shipping routes and ports/terminals accessible by ship or barge that currently handle, store, or process crude oil (received from other transportation modes). These represent likely points for movement of crude oil, should it ever be shipped on the Great Lakes. Data sources: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
What are the benefits of oil transport by ship?
- Efficient movement of crude oil from coasts to inland refineries
- Large tank capacity compared to rail or truck
- Double-hull requirements decrease spill risk
- Existing infrastructure in the region including a vessel traffic control system that tracks the position of every vessel in the system
- Highly cost efficient
- Very low incidence of spills and an overall decreasing trend in spills
- Increased jobs in the maritime sector
- Lower environmental impact compared to truck or railroad during normal operation
What are potential drawbacks of oil transport by ship?
- Spill incidents occur directly in bodies of water
- Spill response challenges especially in high wind, currents, or partially-frozen conditions
- Increased vessel traffic leading to higher risk of accidents
What causes spills to occur?
- Errors leading to ship to ship collisions, groundings, and collisions with fixed objects
- Errors leading to lack of maintenance or improper maintenance
- Ship damage from ice or storms
- Loading, unloading, and inter-modal transfer errors
For more resources, visit the Resource Library
For more information on shipping on the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River go to greatlakes-seaway.com